Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology appears to start in the part of the brain that handles smell before subsequently spreading to additional brain regions and then, ultimately, taking over much of the rest of the brain. This led some to speculate that Alzheimer’s disease may begin in the nose. Perhaps there’s some environmental agent that might enter the brain through some portal in the nostrils?
This is the so-called olfactory vector hypothesis. The anatomy of the nose is well suited for the transfer of things directly into the brain, since the olfactory nerves that stick out into the nose project directly into the brain, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. The nose was actually a major infection route for the polio virus. Public health officials started cauterizing the nasal passages of schoolchildren by spraying caustic chemicals up their noses in an effort to prevent the disease.
The concern is if people breathe in some ionized metals like aluminum dust, for example, it could be transported into the brain through these olfactory nerves at a rate of about 2 millimeters an hour, which is practically 2 inches a day. Doubt has been cast on this theory, however, by a case report of a woman born with a birth defect in which she had no smell nerves yet still developed Alzheimer’s-like pathology. And so, to date, all the supporting evidence is really just circumstantial. It is clear, though, that changes in the sense of smell are among the first clinical signs of Alzheimer’s, occurring during the preclinical phase—that is, before there’s any noticeable cognitive decline. Could we use these changes to predict or diagnose the disease?
For years, researchers have been trying to find markers of brain illness hidden in people’s ability to smell using all sorts of fancy gadgets. For example, functional MRI scans can detect differences in brain activation in response to an odor. In my video, Peanut Butter Smell Test for Alzheimer’s, you can see the responses to lavender. You’ll see a representation of a normal brain’s responses to the odor versus an Alzheimer’s brain. This unequivocally demonstrates that we can pick up changes in smell function due to Alzheimer’s. But, do we really need a million-dollar machine?
An ingenious group of researchers at the University of Florida discovered all we may need is some peanut butter and a ruler.
Considering that the left side of the brain primarily processes what we smell through our left nostril and the right side of our brain covers the right nostril, and understanding that Alzheimer’s strikes the left side more than the right, what if you performed the following experiment: Close your eyes and mouth, breathe normally through the nose, then close one nostril, and hold a foot-long ruler out from the open nostril. Once your eyes, mouth, and one nostril are closed, open a container of peanut butter at the bottom of the ruler (one foot away from your open nostril). Move the peanut butter closer by 1 centimeter upon each exhale until you can detect the odor. Then, repeat the whole procedure again using your other nostril.
This is exactly what the University of Florida researchers did with their subjects. What did they find? The normal elderly control subjects in the study smelled the peanut butter as soon as it came within an average of 18 centimeters (about 7 inches) from either nostril. It was about the same, roughly 7 inches, in the right nostrils of Alzheimer’s patients. But in their left nostrils, it was a mere 2 inches! The peanut butter had to be only 2 inches away before the Alzheimer’s patients could detect it through their left nostrils. This happened every single time. Indeed, the researchers found that a “left nostril impairment of odor detection was present in all the patients with probable AD.” There was no left-right difference in the control group; they could smell the peanut butter when it was the same distance away from both their left and right nostrils. In the Alzheimer’s group, however, there was a 12-centimeter difference.
The disparity was so great that we may be able to set a cutoff value for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s. The researchers reported that “[c]ompared to patients with other causes of dementia this nostril asymmetry of odor detection…was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for probable AD,” meaning no false positives and no false negatives. Compared to healthy people, it was 100% sensitive in picking up cases of probable Alzheimer’s and 92% specific. What exactly does that mean? In this study, if you had Alzheimer’s, there was a 100% chance of having that wide left-right discrepancy. But, if you did have that discrepancy, the chance of having Alzheimer’s was only 92%. This means there were some false positives.
The reason it’s only “probable” Alzheimer’s is because the only way we can really confirm someone has the disease is on autopsy. The current criteria for diagnosing Alzheimer’s require an extensive evaluation, combined with fancy positron emission tomography (PET) scans and spinal taps. All of these tests are expensive and hard to get, can be invasive, and can have potential complications. On top of that, they are neither highly sensitive nor specific. The left-right nostril / peanut butter odor detection test, however, was fast, simple, non-invasive, and inexpensive. They concluded that may make peanut butter an ideal instrument for the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.
Does all this sound a bit too good to be true? It may be. A University of Pennsylvania research team was unable to replicate the results. Click here to read their paper. So, at this point, the data are mixed. I’ll do another post once more studies are published and we have a better handle on whether it’s useful or not.
Of course, it’s better to prevent Alzheimer’s in the first place. Check out these videos for more information.
- Preventing Alzheimer’s with Lifestyle Changes
- Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease with Diet
- Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease With Plants
- Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer’s
Michael Greger, M.D.
Article Source: NutritionFacts.org 06/10/2017 | Network Marketing
Rochester, NY — The three executives of the Rochester based marketing company 5Linx who were charged with wire fraud in a multi-million dollar fraud scheme are set to appear in federal court today.
Police say Jason Guck, Craig Jerebeck and Jeb Tyler collectively diverted $4 million from 5Linx into their own personal bank accounts. All three individuals also face conspiracy charges.
Starting in 2001, Jerabeck served as president and CEO, while Guck and Tyler were vice presidents at the company.
Jerabeck, Tyler, and Guck are accused of withholding information about the three running the fake shell companies from investors individually and collectively. Inaccurate corporate financial documents were issued that significantly understated the company’s available cash as a result.
If convicted, they could spend up to 20 years in federal prison.
Article SourcE: http://13wham.com 06/08/2017 | Network Marketing
Herbalife Ltd. has named Richard Goudis chief executive, succeeding Michael Johnson, who will become executive chairman of the company. Goudis has been a part of the Herbalife management team for 13 years, serving as chief operating officer since 2010. Herbalife shares are up more than 49% for the year so far while the S&P 500 index is up 7.7% for the period. 06/08/2017 | Network Marketing
The benefits of garlic powder for treating mild-to-moderate lead poisoning. 06/08/2017 | Network Marketing
Medical Marijuana Inc reported that its subsidiary firm Kannaway LLC, the initial hemp lifestyle network to provide Phyto-CBD botanical offerings, is adding a new alternative for vaping Cannabidiol with a new vaporizer cartridge full with 100 mg of pure Cannabidiol terpenes and hemp oil to its HempVAP® offering line.
As part of a series of Kannaway® offerings showcasing natural terpenes, comprising Kannaway® Essential Oils, recently introduced at the firm’s IGNITE! National Convention this year in Scottsdale, Az., the vape oil in Kannaway’s latest HempVAP atomizer cartridge mixes 100 mg of Cannabinoid made from Kannaway Pure hemp oil and is seasoned with the terpenes alpha-Pinene, limonene, linalool and myrcene for natural botanical flavor.
Medical Marijuana subsidiary CEO reported that this new Cannabidiol hemp oil vaporizer cartridge is distinct when compared to other products in the marketplace. The product showcases Kannaway Pure Cannabidiol hemp oil mixed with terpenes from hemp. This results in a superior alternative for customers looking to evade unhealthy mixing agents, like polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol that can be noted in other offerings on the market.
Accessible now in the Kannaway® web store, the new terpene-based atomizers work with current HempVAP® batteries and hardware.
In unrelated news, Medical Marijuana reported that it has engaged Alex Grapov as its Global Vice President. Grapov’s initial priority will be to start company’s subsidiary Kannaway Europe operation. Kannaway® marks as the first hemp lifestyle setup to provide Phyto-cannabinoid botanical offerings, recently reported its expansion into Europe with the setup of Kannaway® Europe, which is projected to be fully functional by Q4 2017.
Grapov has experience of more than over 10 years in global business advancement and expansion. Prior to this role, Grapov served as MD for European Businesses and Senior Director of European Sales at two firms, driving yearly sales surpassing $100 million. 06/07/2017 | Network Marketing
COPPELL, Texas–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Mannatech®, Incorporated (NASDAQ: MTEX), a global health and wellness company committed to transforming lives to make a better world, today announced its title sponsorship of the Ironman Buffalo Springs Lake 70.3 Triathlon on June 25 in Lubbock, Texas.
“We are proud to help provide safe health and fitness technologies that can help maximize their performance.”
Mannatech is dedicated to serving those who are passionate about their health and fitness, including this group of elite athletes, and to enable others to achieve their optimal fitness goals and results.*
“It is an honor to be a part of this event and support these elite athletes for their dedication to physical achievement,” said Mannatech CEO and President, Al Bala. “We are proud to help provide safe health and fitness technologies that can help maximize their performance.”*
On Saturday, June 24, Mannatech independent sales Associates will be hosting a booth to answer any questions regarding Mannatech products and the business opportunity. Every competing athlete will receive a complimentary sports bag with samples of Mannatech’s GlycoCafé™ slimsticks, the world’s most complete coffee.
GlycoCafé includes the whole coffee fruit, making it a healthy choice for coffee lovers. Plus, it is infused with Glyconutrients, the core of Mannatech’s clinically tested nutritional technology. Additionally, while most coffees on the market today only use roasted coffee beans, Mannatech’s GlycoCafé coffee is crafted using a blend of organic Arabica beans, antioxidant-rich coffee fruit and metabolism-boosting green coffee. Not only is GlycoCafé a complete coffee, it can also improve cognitive function, provide superior antioxidant support and support cardiovascular health.*
To begin improving your life and the lives of those around you, please visit Mannatech.com. 06/07/2017 | Network Marketing